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Silver Essentials
The Silver Element

Here is an in-depth look at silver the element:

Basic Information:
Symbol: Ag
Atomic number: 47
Group number: 11
Mass: 107.868
Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3
Atomic volume: 10.3 cm3/mol
Melting Point: 961.93 C (1235.1 K)
Boiling Point: 2212 C (2428 K)
Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 250.580 kJ/mol
Number of Protons/Electrons: 47
Number of neutrons: 61
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Face-centered Cubic
Color: silver
Hardness: 3.25 mohs
Characteristics: soft, ductile, tarnishes

Structure of atom:
Number of shells: 5
Atom arrangement:
1. first shell – 2
2. second shell – 8
3. third shell – 18
4. fourth shell – 18
5. fifth shell – 1

Oxidation:
Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Minimum oxidation number: 0
Maximum oxidation number: 3
Minimum oxidation state: 0 (silver occurs naturally in ores in its elemental state)
Maximum oxidation state: 3 (the unit cell of silver oxide, Ag4O4, has two atoms of univalent silver and two atoms of trivalent silver)

Half Lives:
Isotope Half Live
Ag105 41.3 days
Ag105m 7.2 minutes
Ag106m 8.4 days
Ag107 stable
Ag108 2.4 minutes
Ag108m 130 years
Ag109 stable
Ag109m 39.8 seconds
Ag110 24.6 seconds
Ag110m 249.8 days
Ag111 7.47 days

Energies:
1st ionization energy: 731 kJ/mole
Electronegativity: 1.93
2nd ionization energy: 2073.5 kJ/mole
Electron affinity: 125.6 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy: 3360.6 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.235 J/gK
Heat atomization: 284 kJ/mole atoms

Reactions:
With air: mild, =>Ag2O
With 6M HCl: none
With 6M HCl: none
With 15M HNO3: mild, =>AgNO3
Other Forms:
number of isotopes: 2
hydride(s): none
oxide(s): Ag2O
chloride(s): AgCl

Radius:
ionic radius (2- ion): pm
ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 144 pm
ionic radius (1+ ion): 129 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 108 pm
ionic radius (3+ ion): 89 pm

Conductivity:
Thermal conductivity: 429 J/m-sec-degC
Electrical conductivity: 630.5 1/mohm-cm
Electrical resistivity: 1.467 X 10-8 ohms-m (OoC)
Polarizability: 7.9 A^3

Abundance:
Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other sulfides and tellurides.
Relative abundance in solar system: -0.313 log
Abundance earth’s crust: -1.2 log

Names:
English: Silver
French: Argent
German: Silber
Italian: Argento
Latin: Argentum
Spanish: Plata

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